Metals Processing

In the column to the right you will find useful information about the processing of metals.

Below you will find recent posts on the 4M Association which are considered to be of interest to the Metals Interest Group.

Cold Forging

Technology suitable for both serial and small quantity production

Since the most relevant parameters in forming processes describing the material behaviour are the flow stress and the flow curve, it is necessary to perform scaled standard tests to obtain these parameters valid at microscale.

Embossing

Technology suitable for both serial and small quantity production

Studies concerning coining aluminium sheet metal have been performed by Ike and Plancak [23]. Using dies with hole diameters from 0.05 to 1.6 mm, half hard commercially-pure aluminium of 2 mm in thickness and 30 mm in diameter, coining results were evaluated in terms of aspect ratio, the radial position of the hole and the die and the emerging forming load.

Blanking

Technology suitable for both serial and small quantity production

Basic investigations on the effects of miniaturization on the blanking process have been first performed by Kals. It has been shown that the normalized forming force is constant while scaling down sheet thickness due to a lack of free surface. When sheet thickness is below a certain value, the forming force and the ultimate shear strength is increasing. Other investigations have shown that there is a dependency between tool and process parameters and the accuracy of the produced leadframes.

Bending

Technology suitable for both serial and small quantity production

In industrial application, micro bending processes are frequently used in case of spring, clamp or lead frame production. Considering the characteristics of this process, namely part dimension being close to sheet thickness, conventional FE-simulation programs, which assume plain strain condition in the deformed area, are not applicable. In order to overcome this, a first model has been developed that enables the calculation under plane stress conditions or in the improved version considering the anisotropy of the material.

Deep drawing

Technology suitable for both serial and small quantity production

Deep drawing is a process frequently used at conventional length scale. In order to produce e.g. cups with a diameter of a few millimeters or below, some specifics have to be regarded. As it has been shown, there is a relation between the deep drawing clearance and the punch force. If the ratio between clearance and sheet thickness is increased from 1.05 to 1.75, the increase of the force is about 10%.

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